正确答案:an explanation of mental time travel to a description of a study about its neurological basis.
Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1 is excerpted from Linden Miles, "The Meandering Mind: Vection and Mental Time Travel," ©2010 by Linden Miles. Passage 2 is excerpted from Justin Gregg, "A New Frontier in Animal Intelligence," ©2013 by Scientific American.

    The ability to travel mentally through time sets humans
apart from many other species, yet little is known about this
core cognitive capacity. In particular, what shapes the
passage of the mind's journey through time?
*5*    A core facet of conscious experience is that one's mind
periodically wanders from the here-and-now. From memories
of lost loves to expectations about forthcoming vacations,
mental time travel (MTT) makes it possible to revisit the past
and pre-experience the future. Present across cultures and
*10*emerging early in childhood, MTT is believed to serve a
pivotal function in human cognition. When confronted with
complex and challenging judgments, simulating future
outcomes (i.e., prospection) on the basis of prior experience
(i.e., retrospection) is a tactic that optimizes decision-making
*15*and behavioral selection. That the past informs the future in
this way (i.e., recollection-guides-simulation) is evidenced
from research demonstrating that retrospection and
prospection rely on largely overlapping neural structures and
cognitive operations.
*20*    However, remarkably little is known about the actual
process of MTT and how it impacts people's behavior. In this
respect, one emerging possibility is that MTT may be
represented in the sensory-motor systems that regulate
human movement (i.e., MTT is embodied). Put simply,
*25*traveling mentally in time may initiate associated bodily
movements through space. Initial evidence for such a
thought-action coupling during MTT was reported in a study
in which spontaneous fluctuations in the direction and
magnitude of postural sway were assessed while participants
*30*engaged in either retrospective or prospective mental
imagery. The results revealed that the temporal locus of MTT
did indeed influence the direction of people's movements -
whereas retrospection was accompanied by significant
backwards sway, prospection yielded postural movement in
*35*an anterior direction.


    Santino was a misanthrope with a habit of pelting tourists
with rocks. As his reputation for mischief grew, he had to
devise increasingly clever ways to ambush his wary victims.
Santino learned to stash his rocks just out of sight and
*40*casually stand just a few feet from them in order to throw off
suspicion. At the very moment that passersby were fooled
into thinking that he meant them no harm, he grabbed his
hidden projectiles and launched his attack.
    Santino, you see, is not human. He’s a chimpanzee at
*45*Furuvik Zoo in Sweden. His crafty stone-throwing escapades
have made him a global celebrity, and also caught the
attention of researchers studying how animals, much like
humans, might be able to plan their behavior.
    Santino is one of a handful of animals that scientists
*50*believe are showing a complex cognitive ability called
episodic memory. Episodic memory is the ability to recall
past events that one has the sense of having personally
experienced. Unlike semantic memory, which involves
recalling simple facts like “bee stings hurt,” episodic memory
*55*involves putting yourself at the heart of the memory; like
remembering the time you swatted at a bee with a rolled up
newspaper and it got angry and stung your hand.
    If an animal can imagine itself interacting with the world
in the past via episodic memory - like Santino recalling a
*60*failed attack when a human spotted him holding a rock, or
you remembering swatting at a bee - it stands to reason that
the animal might also be able to imagine itself in the future in
a similar scenario, and thus plan its behavior. Santino might
opt to hide his rocks, and you might decide to stop
*65*antagonizing bees. The ability to represent oneself and one’s
actions in the mind’s eye - both in the past [and] in the future
is what scientists refer to as “mental time travel.”

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