正确答案:An unexpected finding arises during the early phase of a study; the study is modified in response to this finding, and the results are interpreted and evaluated.
文章当中,作者提到:Ken Dial设计了一个实验,这个实验的旨在通过观察幼鸟Chukars学习飞行的过程观察研究飞行进化过程,Ken Dial发现Chukars配合使用翅膀和爪子的独特方式,于是他又补充设计了一些实验来研究这个观察的结果。经过补充实验,Ken Dial发现了一些意料之外的结果。
Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.
This passage is adapted from Thor Hanson, Feathers. ©2011 by Thor Hanson. Scientists have long debated how the ancestors of birds evolved the ability to fly. The ground-up theory assumes they were fleet-footed ground dwellers that captured prey by leaping and flapping their upper limbs. The tree-down theory assumes they were tree climbers that leapt and glided among branches.

    At field sites around the world, Ken Dial saw a
pattern in how young pheasants, quail, tinamous,
and other ground birds ran a long behind their
Lineparents." They jumped up like popcorn," he said,
*5*describing how they would flap their half-formed
wings and take short hops into the air. So when a
group of graduate students challenged him
to come up with new data on the age-old
ground-up-tree-down debate, he designed a project
*10*to see what clues might lie in how baby game birds
learned to fly.
    Ken settled on the Chukar Partridge as a
model species, but he might not have made his
discovery without a key piece of advice from the local
*15*rancher in Montana who was supplying him with
birds. When the cowboy stopped by to see how
things were going, Ken showed him his nice, tidy
laboratory setup and explained how the birds` first
hops and flights would be measured. The rancher
*20*was incredulous. "He took one look and said, in
pretty colorful language, `What are those birds doing
on the ground? They hate to be on the ground! Give
them something to climb on!`"At first it seemed
unnatural-ground birds don`t like the ground? But
*25*as he thought about it Ken realized that all the
species he`d watched in the wild preferred to rest on
ledges, low branches, or other elevated perches where
they were safe from predators. They really only used
the ground for feeding and traveling. So he brought
*30*in some hay bales for the Chukars to perch on and
then left his son in charge of feeding and data 
collection while he went away on a short work trip.
    Barely a teenager at the time, young Terry Dial
was visibly upset when his father got back. "I asked
*35*him how it went, "Ken recalled, "and he said,
`Terrible! The birds are cheating!`" Instead of flying
up to their perches , the baby Chukars were using
their legs. Time and again Terry had watched them
run right up the side of a hay bale, flapping all the 
*40*while. Ken dashed out to see for himself, and that
was the "aha" moment. "The birds were using their 
wings and legs cooperatively, "he told me, and that
single observation opened up a world of possibilities.
    Working together with Terry ( who has since gone
*45*on to study animal locomotion ), Ken came up with a
series of ingenious experiments, filming the birds as
they raced up textured ramps tilted at increasing
angles. As the incline increased, the partridges began
to flap, but they angled their wings differently from
*50*birds in flight. They aimed their flapping down and 
backward, using the force not for lift but to keep
their feet firmly pressed against the ramp." It`s like
the spoiler on the back of a race car ,"he explained,
which is a very apt analogy. In Formula One racing,
*55*spoilers are the big aerodynamic fins that push the
cars downward as they speed along, increasing
traction and handling. The birds were doing the very
same thing with their wings to help them scramble
up other wise impossible slopes.
*60*    Ken called the technique WAIR, for wing-assisted
incline running, and went onto document it in a
wide range of species. It not only allowed young
birds to climb vertical surfaces within the first few
weeks of life but also gave adults an energy-efficient
*65*alternative to flying. In the Chukar experiments,
adults regularly used WAIR to ascend ramps steeper
than 90 degrees, essentially running up the wall and
onto the ceiling.
   In an evolutionary context, WAIR takes on
*70*surprising explanatory powers. With one fell swoop
the Dials came up with a viable origin for the
flapping flight stroke of birds (something gliding
animals don`t do and thus a shortcoming of the
tree-down theory ) and an aerodynamic function for
*75*half-formed wings ( one of the main drawbacks to the
ground-up hypothesis ).

SAT模拟考试-OG3阅读 - Reading3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10